Discuss the various organisms that can cause infection in human body and how to avoid them

INTRODUCTION

The human body is its own ecosystem; millions of bacteria and organisms call it home. Usually the body exists in symbiosis with these organisms, some of them provide benefit. Other organisms, parasites, provide no benefit and are usually harmful. An organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote. All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. An organism consists of one or more cells; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism. Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic size and are thus classified as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs. It can be defined as a living individual, who develops their ability to perform its function independently and can react to the stimulus, reproduce, grow, metabolizing nutrients, etc. Based on their habituate and other characteristics, they are scientifically divided into five kingdoms, which include – Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.[1]

Estimates on the number of Earth’s current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86% have not yet been described. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species and that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct.[2]

LIST OF HARMFUL ORGANISMS

The following are the harmful organisms that are dangerous to humans:[3]

  1. Pinworms are very common in the United States. Adult pinworms live in the colon and can remain there for months. Female pinworms leave the host through the anus and lay eggs on the skin. Pinworms cause itchiness and irritation around the anal area, and they are often spread because the infected person (usually children) scratches the area and touches another surface. Eggs left on clothing or bedding can be ingested through direct contact with the mouth or while breathing. Eggs can survive up to three weeks outside the human body.
  2. Hookworms occur in soil or water and can be ingested by eating unwashed produce or drinking contaminated water. Infection may also happen through open wounds, especially in areas where there is animal feces. Hookworms use their teeth to attach themselves to the intestinal wall and siphon blood. They can cause anemia, weight loss, and malnutrition.
  3. Roundworms are the most common harmful organism in the world. Female roundworms enter the small intestine as larvae and can grow to over a foot long. Infection is spread through ingestion of fecal matter, not person-to person contact. Infection may be asymptomatic, although heavy infestations could cause intestinal blockage.
  4. Tapeworm infection happens by swallowing an infected flea and, though rare in humans, can be serious. Symptoms include dizziness, confusion, and fatigue.
  5. Liver Flukes are a worm that cause irritation and holes in the liver. Eating undercooked fish or swimming in contaminated water causes liver fluke infections. Symptoms include fatigue and/or pain on the right side of the body, below the ribs.
  6. Giardia is a widespread protozoa that causes diarrhea. Giardia lives in the intestines and is passed in the feces. It can be spread months after it is out of the body. Infection may occur by ingesting contaminated water. Hygienic food handling practices can reduce the risk of infection.
  7. Entamoeba is a single cell parasite. Its infection, called amebiasis, often causes mild, or no, symptoms but in rare cases can cause liver abscesses.
  8. Cryptosporidium infection occurs by swallowing water that has been contaminated. The infection is called “crypto” and causes diarrhea.
  9. Toxoplasmosis is caused by handling cat litter or undercooked meat (this is why pregnant women are warned against cleaning cat litter boxes). Toxoplasmosis is third among deaths attributable to food borne illness. Infection is often asymptomatic, but can cause severe reactions in pregnant women and people with compromised immune systems. Infection can cause seizures, confusion, loss of coordination, and death.

Almost all of us will come into contact with these harmful invaders over the course of our lives, if we’re not infected already. Since these infections often have no outward symptoms, it is not always obvious that something is living inside you, feeding off of your tissues. Symptoms may be as vague as fatigue or gas.

PREVENTION OF HARMFUL ORGANISMS

To prevent or avoid harmful organisms:[4]

  1. Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly. Remove waxy coatings, these are cosmetic preservatives. Cut away nicked, discolored, mushy or recessed areas. Buy organic foods as much as possible.
  2. Cook meats, poultry and fish at proper temperatures. Check for worms just under the skin before cooking. Wash hands and clean work surfaces thoroughly after handling each item. Use wooden cutting board when preparing or cutting raw meats to increase the chances of killing harmful organisms. Here is a list of remedies for killing germs and bacteria in your kitchen.
  3. Be sure your water comes from a reliably clean source. Drink only purified water from a multi-filtered source. Ideally distilled or purified water is best supplemented with raw Apple Cider Vinegar for extra nutrients. The best brand is Bragg Apple Cider Vinegar.
  4. Wash your hands frequently throughout the day. Warm water, and natural tea tree soap if possible, can remove any microscopic organisms that you’ve come in contact with.
  5. Keep your surroundings clean, free of dust particles and fecal matter from dust mites. Believe it or not that’s enough to sustain those organisms which can live for a time away from a host. Use a damp sponge or HEPA vacuum cleaner to regularly remove dust from surfaces and flooring.
  6. Wear shoes to protect yourself from the organisms that can penetrate human skin. Keep your feet covered even on the beach and playground, as these areas are often rife with a plethora of bacteria and viral fungi.
  7. Know where you’re swimming and never swallow the water while you swim—no matter what body of water it is.
  8. Taking a high quality Probiotic supplement on a regular basis will help to populate your digestive system with needed, beneficial flora.
  9. Perform 2 to 3 Harmful Organism Cleanses a year to assist in removing harmful invaders. It will take at least 6 weeks (the life cycle of most harmful organisms discussed) to complete a thorough cleanse.
  10. Determine to eat a balanced diet to regulate your colon pH.
  11. Regular colon cleansing with a high quality oxygen colon cleanser. Performing 3 consecutive Liver Gallbladder Cleanses can also help detoxify you body.

BENEFITS OF ORGANISMS TO HUMAN

The following are the benefits of organisms to human:[5]

  1. The production of many foods is possible with the help of microorganism e.g. food like bread, bee and cheese are produced with the help of yeast.
  2. People will be surprised if they get to know that their body contains ten times more microorganisms than the body cells. These microorganisms are useful for the body and perform various useful functions e.g. e.coli resides in the intestine and releases such components which help in the digestion of the food.
  3. Bacteria present in the environment are responsible for recycling wastes and for producing energy sources like carbon and nitrogen. Plants use carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis. Some bacteria also help in cleaning the environment by digesting the pollutants and as a result they release nutrients which are environment friendly.

Conclusively, not all organisms are negative to human well-beings. All the cells that make up the organism have an important role to play for the organism to perform its life functions.

[1] Organisms, http://biology.tutorvista.com/organism.html retrieved on 5th of May, 2016

[2] Cavalier-Smith T. (1987). “The origin of eukaryotic and archaebacterial cells”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503: 17–54. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb40596.x

[3] Edward, What Harmful Organisms Live in Your Body? http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/what-harmful-organisms-live-in-your-body/ retrieved on 5th of May, 2016

[4] Health Effects of Harmful Organisms, http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/health-effects-of-harmful-organisms/ retrieved on 5th of May, 2016

[5] Amna Adnan, Benefits of Microorganisms to humans, http://www.biotecharticles.com/Others-Article/Benefits-of-Microorganisms-to-Humans-133.html retrieved on 5th of May, 2016

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